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¿Por qué los pueblos antiguos construyeron sus casas en acantilados?

¿Por qué los pueblos antiguos construyeron sus casas en acantilados?

Los pueblos de Ancient Pueblo son conocidos por sus viviendas en los acantilados que se encuentran en todo el suroeste de Estados Unidos, en lugares como Mesa Verde, Bandelier, Montezuma Castle y Gila Cliff Dwellings.

¿Por qué construyeron sus casas en lugares de tan difícil acceso?


Los indios Pueblo estaban rodeados por muchas tribus nómadas que son veneradas por sus feroces habilidades de lucha. Hoy en día llamamos colectivamente a esas tribus "Apachean" y / o Navajo. Los indios Pueblo eran agrícolas y, según los españoles, eran muy pacíficos. Los misioneros españoles construyeron iglesias entre ellos y los primeros colonos europeos comerciaron con ellos con pocos problemas. (Fue un levantamiento indígena en Acoma en el siglo XVI y el fraile fue asesinado después de que abusó de los indígenas durante muchos años al comer demasiado de su escasa comida, pero parece ser la excepción). La elección de la estructura del edificio es defensiva y tuvo mucho éxito hasta la llegada de los españoles. Los indios Pueblo eligieron la defensa en lugar de enfrentarse a las feroces tribus guerreras que los rodeaban.


Una consideración es que, desde el punto de vista logístico, las redes comerciales siempre requieren cachés o bóvedas para almacenar temporalmente los productos que viajan a lo largo de la red. Estas bóvedas deben ser seguras para evitar pérdidas por robo.

La arqueología muestra que, en su mayor parte, estas viviendas de piedra no eran viviendas en absoluto. Es decir, almacenaban maíz en lugar de servir de alojamiento.

Aunque desde nuestra perspectiva pueden parecer defensivos hasta un grado casi paranoico, de hecho es muy probable que hayan sido una instalación bastante agresiva. De la misma manera que los normandos construyeron fuertes fortalezas en Irlanda y Gran Bretaña para subyugarla, estas bóvedas de maíz podrían haber unido una red comercial destinada a controlar grandes sectores de la población estadounidense.


Casas en Pueblo I

Los arqueólogos piensan que la gente vivió y trabajó en las esclusas durante al menos parte del año. Algunas de las habitaciones se utilizaron para almacenar maíz seco y otros alimentos. Otros se utilizaron para moler maíz, cocinar u otras actividades cotidianas.

Roomblocks se construyeron sobre el suelo. Algunas cerraduras de habitación Pueblo I tenían solo una fila de habitaciones. Otras cerraduras de habitación tenían dos filas de habitaciones, delantera y trasera. Y algunos, como el que se muestra arriba, tenían una combinación. Roomblocks durante este tiempo tenía solo un piso de altura. El espacio entre la cerradura y los pithouses se llama & quotplaza & quot.

Ejemplo de muro de jacal. En lugares donde el adobe se ha caído,
puede ver los diferentes materiales vegetales que se utilizaron para construir el
pared. El color negro es donde el hollín del hogar de fuego tiñó el
techo y paredes.

¿Cómo se construyeron las cerraduras de Pueblo I?

Los candados generalmente estaban hechos de jacal (pronunciado huh-CÄL).

Para hacer un muro de jacal, la gente colocaba postes de madera en el suelo. A continuación, tejerían o atarían ramas más pequeñas entre los postes. Las ramas se utilizaron para sostener una capa de ramitas aún más pequeñas.

Finalmente, se selló el muro con una capa de adobe. El adobe es barro mezclado con pequeños trozos de material vegetal.

Los arqueólogos a menudo encuentran adobe cuando excavan. Estas fotografías muestran trozos de adobe de dos antiguas casas Pueblo. Todavía se pueden ver las impresiones de las pequeñas ramas y ramitas que formaban parte de la estructura.

Entonces, ¿cómo eran los pithouses durante el período Pueblo I? En los dibujos a continuación, puede ver cómo era un pithouse Pueblo I. El pequeño dibujo en el círculo muestra cómo se veía el pithouse desde el exterior, con el techo en su lugar. En el dibujo grande, se han eliminado parte del techo y una pared para que pueda ver el interior del pithouse. Las diferentes partes de la casa están etiquetadas, incluida la pared del ala, el deflector, la chimenea y el orificio de humo.

Los pithouses Pueblo I eran mucho más profundos que los pithouses construidos durante el período Basketmaker. A medida que los pithouses se hicieron más profundos, sus techos se volvieron más planos. Además, los pithouses de Pueblo I no tenían antesalas. En cambio, la gente construyó túneles de ventilación que permitían que el aire exterior fluyera hacia el pithouse.

Finalmente, a partir del período Pueblo I, la gente comenzó a construir sipapus en los pisos de sus pithouses. Un sipapu (pronunciado SEE-pah-poo) es un pozo redondo muy pequeño ubicado al norte del hogar. Algunos indios Pueblo creen que los sipapus representan el agujero por el que los humanos treparon para entrar en este mundo.

La presencia de sipapus nos dice que las familias pueden haber usado pithouses para rituales además de actividades rutinarias como moler maíz, cocinar, comer y dormir.

Para grandes rituales o ceremonias, la gente todavía se reunía en grandes kivas. Estas grandes estructuras podrían albergar a muchas personas de toda la comunidad.


Contenido

Pueblo, que significa "aldea" en español, fue un término originario de los exploradores españoles que lo usaron para referirse al estilo particular de vivienda de la gente. El pueblo Navajo, que ahora reside en partes del antiguo territorio Pueblo, se refirió al pueblo antiguo como Anaasází, un exónimo que significa "antepasados ​​de nuestros enemigos", refiriéndose a su competencia con los pueblos de Pueblo. Los navajos ahora usan el término en el sentido de referirse a "gente antigua" o "antiguos". [4]

La gente Hopi usa el término Hisatsinom, que significa gente antigua, para describir a los ancestrales Puebloans. [1]

Los ancestrales Puebloans fueron una de las cuatro principales tradiciones arqueológicas prehistóricas reconocidas en el suroeste de Estados Unidos. Esta área a veces se conoce como Oasisamerica en la región que define el sudoeste precolombino de América del Norte. Los otros son Mogollon, Hohokam y Patayan. En relación con las culturas vecinas, los pueblos ancestrales ocuparon el cuadrante noreste del área. [5] La patria ancestral Puebloan se centra en la meseta de Colorado, pero se extiende desde el centro de Nuevo México en el este hasta el sur de Nevada en el oeste.

Las áreas del sur de Nevada, Utah y Colorado forman un límite norte flexible, mientras que el borde sur está definido por los ríos Colorado y Little Colorado en Arizona y el río Puerco y el río Grande en Nuevo México. Se han encontrado estructuras y otras evidencias de la cultura ancestral Puebloan extendiéndose hacia el este hasta las Grandes Llanuras Americanas, en áreas cercanas a los ríos Cimarron y Pecos y en la Cuenca Galisteo.

El terreno y los recursos dentro de esta gran región varían mucho. Las regiones de la meseta tienen elevaciones elevadas que van desde los 4.500 a los 8.500 pies (1.400 a 2.600 m). Las extensas mesas horizontales están coronadas por formaciones sedimentarias y sostienen bosques de enebros, piñones y pinos ponderosa, cada uno de los cuales favorece diferentes elevaciones. La erosión del viento y del agua ha creado cañones de paredes empinadas y ha esculpido ventanas y puentes en el paisaje de arenisca. En áreas donde los estratos resistentes (capas de rocas sedimentarias), como la piedra arenisca o la piedra caliza, se superponen con más facilidad a los estratos erosionados, como la lutita, se forman salientes de roca. Los habitantes del Pueblo Ancestral favorecieron la construcción bajo tales voladizos para refugios y sitios de construcción defensivos.

Todas las áreas de la tierra natal de los Ancestrales Puebloan sufrieron períodos de sequía y erosión por el viento y el agua. Las lluvias de verano pueden ser poco fiables y, a menudo, llegan como tormentas eléctricas destructivas. Si bien la cantidad de nevadas invernales variaba mucho, los habitantes de Pueblo Ancestrales dependían de la nieve para la mayor parte de su agua. El deshielo permitió la germinación de semillas, tanto silvestres como cultivadas, en la primavera.

Donde las capas de arenisca se superponen al esquisto, la nieve derretida podría acumularse y crear filtraciones y manantiales, que los habitantes de los pueblos ancestrales usaban como fuentes de agua. La nieve también alimentó a los afluentes más pequeños y predecibles, como los ríos Chinle, Animas, Jemez y Taos. Los ríos más grandes tenían menos importancia directa para la cultura antigua, ya que los arroyos más pequeños se desviaban o controlaban más fácilmente para el riego.

La cultura ancestral Puebloan es quizás mejor conocida por las viviendas de piedra y tierra que su gente construyó a lo largo de las paredes de los acantilados, particularmente durante las eras Pueblo II y Pueblo III, desde aproximadamente 900 a 1350 d.C. en total. Los ejemplos mejor conservados de las viviendas de piedra ahora están protegidos dentro de los parques nacionales de los Estados Unidos, como el Monumento Nacional Navajo, el Parque Histórico Nacional de la Cultura Chaco, el Parque Nacional Mesa Verde, el Monumento Nacional Cañones de los Antiguos, el Monumento Nacional Ruinas Aztecas, el Monumento Nacional Bandelier Monumento, Monumento Nacional Hovenweep y Monumento Nacional Cañón de Chelly.

Estos pueblos, llamados pueblos por los colonos españoles, eran accesibles solo con cuerdas o escalando rocas. Estos asombrosos logros en la construcción tuvieron comienzos modestos. Las primeras casas y pueblos ancestrales de Puebloan se basaron en la casa del pozo, una característica común en los períodos de Basketmaker.

Los habitantes de los ancestros también son conocidos por su cerámica. En general, la cerámica utilizada para cocinar o almacenar en la región era gris sin pintar, ya sea lisa o texturizada. La alfarería utilizada para fines más formales a menudo estaba más ricamente adornada. En la parte norte o "anasazi" del mundo de los pueblos ancestrales, desde aproximadamente 500 hasta 1300 d. C., la cerámica decorada más común tenía diseños pintados de negro sobre fondos blancos o gris claro. [6] La decoración se caracteriza por un rayado fino y los colores contrastantes se obtienen mediante el uso de pintura a base de minerales sobre un fondo calcáreo. [7] Al sur del territorio anasazi, en los asentamientos de Mogollon, la cerámica se enrollaba a mano, se raspaba y se pulía con mayor frecuencia, con una coloración de rojo a marrón. [8]

Algunos cilindros altos se consideran recipientes ceremoniales, mientras que los frascos de cuello estrecho pueden haber sido utilizados para líquidos. La vajilla en la parte sur de la región, particularmente después del 1150 d.C., se caracteriza por una decoración de líneas negras más densa y el uso de colorantes a base de carbono. [7] En el norte de Nuevo México, la tradición local de "negro sobre blanco", la cerámica blanca de Río Grande, continuó mucho después del 1300 d. C.

Los cambios en la composición, estructura y decoración de la cerámica son señales de cambio social en el registro arqueológico. Esto es particularmente cierto cuando los pueblos del suroeste de Estados Unidos comenzaron a dejar sus hogares tradicionales y emigraron hacia el sur. Según los arqueólogos Patricia Crown y Steadman Upham, la aparición de colores brillantes en Salada Polychromes en el siglo XIV puede reflejar alianzas religiosas o políticas a nivel regional. La cerámica de finales de los siglos XIV y XV del centro de Arizona, ampliamente comercializada en la región, tiene colores y diseños que pueden derivar de la cerámica anterior de los pueblos ancestrales y mogollon. [9]

Los Ancestrales Puebloans también crearon muchos petroglifos y pictografías. El estilo pictográfico con el que están asociados es el llamado Barrier Canyon Style. Esta forma de pictografía está pintada en áreas en las que las imágenes estarían protegidas del sol pero visibles para un grupo de personas. Las figuras a veces tienen un aspecto fantasmal o extraterrestre. El panel del Espíritu Santo en el Cañón de la Herradura se considera uno de los primeros usos de la perspectiva gráfica, donde la figura más grande parece adoptar una representación tridimensional.

La evidencia arqueológica reciente ha establecido que en al menos una gran casa, Pueblo Bonito, la familia de élite cuyos entierros los asocian con el sitio practicaba la sucesión matrilineal. La habitación 33 en Pueblo Bonito, el entierro más rico jamás excavado en el suroeste, sirvió como cripta para un poderoso linaje, trazado a través de la línea femenina, durante aproximadamente 330 años. Si bien otros entierros de Pueblo Ancestral aún no han sido sometidos a las mismas pruebas arqueogenómicas, la supervivencia de la descendencia matrilineal entre los Puebloans contemporáneos sugiere que esta puede haber sido una práctica generalizada entre los Puebloans Ancestrales. [10]

La gente del Pueblo Ancestral creó una arquitectura única con espacios comunitarios planificados. Los antiguos centros de población como el Cañón del Chaco (en las afueras de Crownpoint, Nuevo México), Mesa Verde (cerca de Cortez, Colorado) y el Monumento Nacional Bandelier (cerca de Los Alamos, Nuevo México) le han dado renombre a los pueblos ancestrales. Consistían en complejos y estructuras parecidas a apartamentos hechos de piedra, barro de adobe y otros materiales locales, o estaban tallados en los lados de las paredes del cañón. Desarrollado dentro de estas culturas, la gente también adoptó detalles de diseño de otras culturas tan lejanas como el México contemporáneo.

En su día, estos pueblos y ciudades antiguos eran generalmente edificios de varios pisos y de usos múltiples que rodeaban plazas abiertas y miradores. Fueron ocupados por cientos o miles de pueblos ancestrales. Estos complejos de población albergaron eventos e infraestructura culturales y cívicos que respaldaron una vasta región periférica a cientos de millas de distancia unida por carreteras de transporte.

Construidos mucho antes de 1492 d.C., estos pueblos y aldeas de Pueblo Ancestral en el suroeste de América del Norte estaban ubicados en varias posiciones defensivas, por ejemplo, en mesetas altas y empinadas como en Mesa Verde o el actual Pueblo de Acoma, llamado la "Ciudad del Cielo". , en Nuevo México. A principios del 900 d.C. y más allá del siglo XIII, los complejos de población fueron un importante centro de cultura para los pueblos ancestrales. En el Cañón del Chaco, los desarrolladores chacoanos extrajeron bloques de arenisca y transportaron madera desde grandes distancias, ensamblando 15 complejos importantes. Estos se clasificaron como los edificios más grandes de América del Norte hasta finales del siglo XIX. [11] [12]

Se ha propuesto evidencia de arqueoastronomía en Chaco, con el petroglifo Sun Dagger en Fajada Butte como un ejemplo popular. Muchos edificios del Chaco pueden haber sido alineados para capturar los ciclos solar y lunar, [13] requiriendo generaciones de observaciones astronómicas y siglos de construcción hábilmente coordinada. [14] Se cree que el cambio climático provocó la emigración de los chacoanos y el eventual abandono del cañón, comenzando con una sequía de 50 años que comenzó en 1130. [15]

Grandes casas

Inmensos complejos conocidos como "grandes casas" encarnaban el culto en el Chaco. Los arqueólogos han encontrado instrumentos musicales, joyas, cerámicas y artículos ceremoniales, lo que indica que las personas en las Grandes Casas eran familias de élite y más adineradas. Organizaron entierros en interiores, donde se enterraban obsequios con los muertos, que a menudo incluían cuencos de comida y cuentas de color turquesa. [dieciséis]

A medida que las formas arquitectónicas evolucionaron y pasaron los siglos, las casas mantuvieron varios rasgos centrales. Lo más evidente es que sus complejos a granel tenían un promedio de más de 200 habitaciones cada uno, y algunos cerraban hasta 700 habitaciones. [14] Las habitaciones individuales eran de tamaño considerable, con techos más altos que las obras de Ancestral Pueblo de períodos anteriores. Estaban bien planificados: grandes secciones o alas erigidas se terminaron en una sola etapa, en lugar de en incrementos.

Las casas generalmente miraban al sur. Las áreas de la plaza casi siempre estaban rodeadas por edificios de habitaciones selladas o muros altos. Las casas a menudo tenían cuatro o cinco pisos de altura, con habitaciones de un solo piso que daban a la plaza. Los bloques de habitaciones tenían terrazas para permitir que las secciones más altas compusieran el edificio trasero del pueblo. Las habitaciones a menudo se organizaban en suites, con habitaciones delanteras más grandes que traseras, interiores y salas o áreas de almacenamiento.

Las estructuras ceremoniales conocidas como kivas se construyeron en proporción al número de habitaciones de un pueblo. Se construyó una pequeña kiva para aproximadamente cada 29 habitaciones. Nueve complejos cada uno albergaba una Gran Kiva de gran tamaño, cada uno de hasta 63 pies (19 m) de diámetro. Puertas en forma de T y dinteles de piedra marcaban todas las kivas chacoanas.

Aunque a menudo se usaban muros simples y compuestos, las grandes casas se construían principalmente con muros de núcleo y enchapado: se erigieron dos muros de carga paralelos que comprenden bloques de arenisca planos y revestidos unidos con argamasa de arcilla. [17] Los espacios entre las paredes estaban llenos de escombros, formando el núcleo de la pared. Luego, las paredes se cubrieron con una chapa de pequeños trozos de piedra arenisca, que se comprimieron en una capa de barro aglutinante. [17] Estas piedras de superficie se colocaron a menudo en patrones distintivos.

Las estructuras del Chaco en conjunto requirieron la madera de 200,000 árboles coníferos, en su mayoría arrastrados, a pie, desde cadenas montañosas hasta 70 millas (110 km) de distancia. [18] [19]

Uno de los aspectos más notables de la infraestructura de Ancestral Puebloan se encuentra en el Cañón del Chaco y es el Chaco Road, un sistema de caminos que irradian desde muchos sitios de grandes casas como Pueblo Bonito, Chetro Ketl y Una Vida. Conducían hacia pequeños sitios atípicos y características naturales dentro y más allá de los límites del cañón.

A través de imágenes satelitales e investigaciones terrestres, los arqueólogos han detectado al menos ocho carreteras principales que juntas recorren más de 180 millas (300 km) y tienen más de 30 pies (10 m) de ancho. Estos se excavaron en una superficie lisa y nivelada en el lecho de roca o se crearon mediante la eliminación de vegetación y suelo. Los residentes del Pueblo Ancestral del Cañón del Chaco cortaron grandes rampas y escaleras en la roca del acantilado para conectar las carreteras en las cimas del cañón con los sitios en el fondo del valle.

Las carreteras más grandes, construidas al mismo tiempo que muchas de las grandes casas (entre 1000 y 1125 d.C.), son: Great North Road, South Road, Coyote Canyon Road, Chacra Face Road, Ahshislepah Road, Mexican Springs. Road, West Road y la más corta Pintado-Chaco Road. Las estructuras simples como bermas y muros se encuentran a veces alineadas a lo largo de los recorridos de las carreteras. Además, algunos tramos de las carreteras conducen a características naturales como manantiales, lagos, cimas de montañas y pináculos. [20]

Great North Road

La más larga y conocida de estas carreteras es la Great North Road, que se origina en diferentes rutas cercanas a Pueblo Bonito y Chetro Ketl. Estos caminos convergen en Pueblo Alto y desde allí conducen al norte más allá de los límites del cañón. No hay comunidades a lo largo del recorrido del camino, salvo estructuras pequeñas y aisladas. [ cita necesaria ]

Las interpretaciones arqueológicas del sistema de carreteras del Chaco se dividen entre un propósito económico y un papel ideológico simbólico vinculado a las creencias ancestrales Puebloan.

El sistema se descubrió por primera vez a finales del siglo XIX. No fue excavado y estudiado hasta la década de 1970. A fines del siglo XX, las evaluaciones de los arqueólogos fueron ayudadas por imágenes de satélite y fotografías tomadas de vuelos en avión sobre el área. Los arqueólogos sugirieron que el propósito principal de la carretera era transportar productos locales y exóticos hacia y desde el cañón. El propósito económico del sistema de carreteras del Chaco se muestra por la presencia de artículos de lujo en Pueblo Bonito y en otras partes del cañón. Artículos como guacamayos, turquesas, conchas marinas, que no forman parte de este entorno, además de embarcaciones importadas que se distinguen por su diseño, demuestran que el Chaco tenía relaciones comerciales de larga distancia con otras regiones lejanas. El uso generalizado de madera en las construcciones chacoanas se basó en un sistema de transporte amplio y fácil, ya que este recurso no está disponible localmente. A través del análisis de varios isótopos de estroncio, los arqueólogos se han dado cuenta de que gran parte de la madera que compone la construcción chacoana proviene de varias cadenas montañosas distantes, un hallazgo que también respalda la importancia económica del Camino Chaco. [21]


¿Por qué los pueblos antiguos construyeron sus casas en acantilados? - Historia

Leyendas de los anasazi - Antiguos alienígenas



Los Ancestrales Puebloans eran una antigua cultura nativa americana que se extendía por la actual región de las Cuatro Esquinas de los Estados Unidos, que comprende el sureste de Utah, el noreste de Arizona, el noroeste de Nuevo México y el suroeste de Colorado. Se cree que los ancestrales Puebloans se desarrollaron, al menos en parte, a partir de la Tradición Oshara, que se desarrolló a partir de la cultura de Picosa.

Vivían en una variedad de estructuras que incluían pequeñas casas de pozo familiares, estructuras más grandes para albergar clanes, grandes pueblos y viviendas ubicadas en acantilados para la defensa. Los Ancestrales Puebloans poseían una red compleja que se extendía a través de la meseta de Colorado uniendo a cientos de comunidades y centros de población. Tenían un conocimiento distinto de las ciencias celestes que encontraron forma en su arquitectura. La kiva, un espacio congregacional que se usaba principalmente con fines ceremoniales, era una parte integral de la estructura comunitaria de este pueblo antiguo.

En la época contemporánea, la gente y su cultura arqueológica se conocían como anasazi con fines históricos. Los navajos, que no eran sus descendientes, los llamaron por este término. Como reflejo de las tradiciones históricas, el término se usó para significar "enemigos antiguos". Los habitantes de Pueblo contemporáneos no quieren que se use este término.

Los arqueólogos continúan debatiendo cuando surgió esta cultura distinta. El acuerdo actual, basado en la terminología definida por la Clasificación de Pecos, sugiere su aparición alrededor del siglo XII a. C., durante la era arqueológicamente designada como Early Basketmaker II. Comenzando con las primeras exploraciones y excavaciones, los investigadores identificaron a los habitantes de los pueblos ancestrales como los precursores de los pueblos contemporáneos. Tres sitios del Patrimonio Mundial de la UNESCO ubicados en los Estados Unidos se atribuyen a los Pueblos: el Parque Nacional Mesa Verde, el Parque Histórico Nacional de la Cultura Chaco y el Pueblo Taos.

Ancient Pueblo People, o Puebloans Ancestrales, es un término preferido para el grupo cultural de personas a menudo conocidas como Anasazi, que son los antepasados ​​de los pueblos Pueblo modernos. Los ancestrales Puebloans eran una civilización nativa americana prehistórica centrada en el área actual de Four Corners en el suroeste de los Estados Unidos.

Los arqueólogos debaten cuándo surgió una cultura distinta, pero el consenso actual, basado en la terminología definida por la Clasificación de Pecos, sugiere su aparición alrededor del 1200 a.C., la Era de Basketmaker II.

Habitaron el área que hoy es Arizona, Colorado, Utah y Nuevo México, llamada las Cuatro Esquinas. Son conocidos por las aldeas de adobe ubicadas a lo largo de los bordes de los cañones o en la cima de las mesetas. La civilización es quizás mejor conocida por las viviendas de jakal, adobe y arenisca que construyeron a lo largo de las paredes de los acantilados, particularmente durante las épocas de Pueblo II y Pueblo III.

Los ejemplos mejor conservados de esas viviendas se encuentran en parques como el Parque Histórico Nacional de la Cultura Chaco, el Parque Nacional Mesa Verde, el Monumento Nacional Hovenweep, el Monumento Nacional Bandelier y el Monumento Nacional Cañón de Chelly. Estos pueblos, llamados pueblos por los colonos mexicanos, a menudo solo eran accesibles con cuerdas o escalando rocas.

Cultura del Chaco: constructores de pueblos del suroeste

El Parque Histórico Nacional de la Cultura Chaco es un Parque Histórico Nacional de los Estados Unidos que alberga la concentración más densa y excepcional de pueblos del suroeste de Estados Unidos. El parque está ubicado en el noroeste de Nuevo México, entre Albuquerque y Farmington, en un remoto cañón cortado por Chaco Wash. Con la colección más amplia de ruinas antiguas al norte de México, el parque conserva una de las más importantes culturas e históricas precolombinas. áreas en los Estados Unidos.

Entre el 900 y el 1150 d.C., el Cañón del Chaco fue un importante centro cultural para los pueblos antiguos. Los chacoanos extrajeron bloques de arenisca y transportaron madera desde grandes distancias, reuniendo quince complejos importantes que siguieron siendo los edificios más grandes de América del Norte hasta el siglo XIX. Se ha propuesto evidencia de arqueoastronomía en Chaco, con el petroglifo "Daga del sol" en Fajada Butte como un ejemplo popular. Es posible que muchos edificios del Chaco se hayan alineado para capturar los ciclos solar y lunar, lo que requiere generaciones de observaciones astronómicas y siglos de construcción hábilmente coordinada. Se cree que el cambio climático provocó la emigración de los habitantes de Chaco y el eventual abandono del cañón, comenzando con una sequía de cincuenta años que comenzó en 1130.

Los sitios culturales del Chaco, que comprenden un sitio del Patrimonio Mundial de la UNESCO ubicado en la región árida y escasamente poblada de Four Corners, son frágiles: las preocupaciones por la erosión causada por los turistas han llevado al cierre de Fajada Butte al público. Los sitios son considerados patrias ancestrales sagradas por los pueblos Hopi y Pueblo, quienes mantienen relatos orales de su migración histórica desde el Chaco y su relación espiritual con la tierra. Aunque los esfuerzos de preservación del parque pueden entrar en conflicto con las creencias religiosas nativas, los representantes tribales trabajan en estrecha colaboración con el Servicio de Parques Nacionales para compartir sus conocimientos y respetar la herencia de la cultura chacoana. Lee mas

Cultura Chaco: Constructores de Pueblo del Suroeste Live Science - 23 de mayo de 2017
La "Cultura Chaco", como la llaman los arqueólogos modernos, floreció aproximadamente entre los siglos IX y XIII d.C. y se centró en el Cañón del Chaco en lo que hoy es Nuevo México. La gente de la Cultura Chaco construyó inmensas estructuras que en ocasiones abarcaron más de 500 habitaciones. También participaron en el comercio a larga distancia que traía cacao, guacamayos (un tipo de loro), turquesas y cobre al Cañón del Chaco. La gente de la Cultura Chaco no utilizó un sistema de escritura y, como tal, los investigadores deben confiar en los artefactos y estructuras que dejaron atrás, así como en relatos orales que se han transmitido de generación en generación, para reconstruir cómo fueron sus vidas.

Los arqueólogos generalmente están de acuerdo en que el Cañón del Chaco fue el centro de la Cultura Chaco. Hoy en día, el cañón es un parque nacional y Patrimonio de la Humanidad por la UNESCO. El Servicio de Parques Nacionales estima que hay alrededor de 4.000 sitios arqueológicos en el parque, incluidas más de una docena de inmensas estructuras que los arqueólogos a veces llaman "Grandes Casas". La investigación arqueológica ha revelado muchos descubrimientos, incluido un sistema de caminos que conectaban muchos sitios de la Cultura Chaco, y evidencia de alineamientos astronómicos que indican que algunas estructuras de la Cultura Chaco estaban orientadas hacia el sol del solsticio y las paradas lunares.

Mesa Verdi fue el hogar de los indios anasazi durante más de 1.000 años. Las personas que primero construyeron sus casas aquí en la época del Imperio Romano cultivaban las mesetas, mesetas, fondos de ríos y cañones. Crearon una civilización próspera y populosa que eventualmente levantó torres y construyó ciudades de cien habitaciones en los acantilados y cuevas de Mesa Verde. El Cliff Palace es la vivienda en un acantilado más grande de América del Norte. La estructura construida por los Pueblos Antiguos se encuentra en el Parque Nacional Mesa Verde en su antigua región natal. La vivienda y el parque del acantilado se encuentran en la esquina suroeste de Colorado, en el suroeste de los Estados Unidos.

El Parque Nacional Mesa Verde es un Parque Nacional y Patrimonio de la Humanidad ubicado en el condado de Montezuma, Colorado. Protege algunos de los sitios arqueológicos ancestrales de Puebloan mejor conservados en los Estados Unidos. Creado por el presidente Theodore Roosevelt en 1906, el parque ocupa 52,485 acres (21,240 ha) cerca de la región de Four Corners del suroeste de Estados Unidos. Con más de 4300 sitios, incluidas 600 viviendas en acantilados, es la reserva arqueológica más grande de los EE. UU. Mesa Verde (en español para "mesa verde") es mejor conocida por estructuras como Cliff Palace, que se cree que es la vivienda en acantilados más grande de América del Norte .

A partir del año 7500 a. C., Mesa Verde fue habitada estacionalmente por un grupo de paleoindios nómadas conocidos como el complejo montañoso Foothills. La variedad de puntas de proyectil encontradas en la región indica que fueron influenciadas por áreas circundantes, incluida la Gran Cuenca, la Cuenca de San Juan y el Valle del Río Grande. Más tarde, la gente arcaica estableció refugios rocosos semipermanentes dentro y alrededor de la mesa. Para el año 1000 a. C., la cultura Basketmaker surgió de la población arcaica local, y para el 750 d. C., los pueblos ancestrales se habían desarrollado a partir de la cultura Basketmaker.

Los habitantes de Mesa Verde sobrevivieron usando una combinación de caza, recolección y agricultura de subsistencia de cultivos como maíz, frijoles y calabazas. Construyeron los primeros pueblos de la mesa en algún momento después de 650 y, a fines del siglo XII, comenzaron a construir las enormes viviendas en los acantilados por las que el parque es más conocido. Para 1285, luego de un período de inestabilidad social y ambiental impulsada por una serie de sequías severas y prolongadas, abandonaron el área y se trasladaron al sur a lugares en Arizona y Nuevo México, incluidos Río Chama, Pajarito Plateau y Santa Fe. Lee mas

La aldea típica anasazi constaba de edificios que albergaban a unos 100 hombres, mujeres y niños. La mampostería de piedra o adobe (ladrillos hechos de arena, arcilla y paja), que se remonta al año 700 d.C., formaba estructuras de apartamentos complejas que se elevaban sobre mesas (terrenos planos y altos) o dentro de cuevas naturales en la base de los cañones. Los apartamentos de la planta baja eran unidades de almacenamiento de grano, mientras que las escaleras permitían el acceso a los diferentes compartimentos habitables de 10 por 20 pies de arriba. Los cultivos de las aldeas incluían maíz (maíz), calabazas, calabacines, frijoles y algodón. Las diferentes fases de la cultura produjeron cestas finamente hechas y cerámica bellamente diseñada.

Con base en las prácticas religiosas actuales de los Pueblo, los arqueólogos piensan en las kivas anasazi (idioma Hopi para "casa vieja") como cámaras sagradas para ceremonias. En el culto kachina (espíritus ancestrales que traen la lluvia), los anasazi adoraban al sol, el fuego y las serpientes por la fertilidad y la productividad agrícola. La kiva es una habitación subterránea a la que se accede mediante una escalera a través de una abertura en el techo. El simbolismo esotérico del agujero se refiere a un hombre que abandona el útero de la tierra. Estos lugares sagrados siempre estaban separados de las viviendas, con un promedio de dos kivas por aldea.

Esta es una cultura que vino y se fue, dejando tras de sí marcadores de piedra y petroglifos que sugieren que fueron visitados y conectados con la Gente de las Estrellas, o extraterrestres antiguos al igual que otras civilizaciones antiguas.

Mis amigos: los antropólogos Steven Stewart y Nicole Torres

La evidencia arqueológica sugiere que el área de Moab y el país circundante estaba habitado por los anasazi (en lengua navajo, los antiguos). La actual ciudad de Moab se asienta sobre las ruinas de las comunidades agrícolas del pueblo que datan de los siglos XI y XII. Estos indios anasazi abandonaron misteriosamente el área de las Cuatro Esquinas alrededor del año 1300 d.C., dejando ruinas de sus casas esparcidas por toda el área. Los pueblos nunca volvieron a ser habitados. Fueron "quemados, posiblemente por los habitantes, poco antes del abandono".

¿Podrían haber sido expulsados ​​por tribus nómadas, como los utes o los navajos? No hay evidencia directa de que ninguno de los grupos, o cualquier otro como ellos, estuviera en el área tan temprano. Sin embargo, existe una creciente evidencia de que los pueblos de habla numica, de los cuales forman parte los utes y los paiutes, se habían extendido hacia el noroeste desde el suroeste de Nevada y estaban en contacto con los pueblos del oeste de Utah hacia el año 1200 d.C. posible que estuvieran en el condado de San Juan poco después de eso. Los sitios de Ute y Paiute son muy difíciles de distinguir de los campamentos de Anasazi y es posible que no los reconozcamos.

Los navajos estaban en el noroeste de Nuevo México hacia el año 1500, pero no sabemos dónde estaban antes de eso. Quizás la respuesta a la salida de los anasazis de Utah radica en una combinación del mal clima y las teorías de los nómadas que llegan.

Los Ancestrales Puebloans emigraron de su antigua patria por varias razones complejas. These may include pressure from Numic-speaking peoples moving onto the Colorado Plateau as well as climate change which resulted in agricultural failures.

Confirming evidence for climatic change in North America is found in excavations of western regions in the Mississippi Valley between A.D. 1150 and 1350 which show long lasting patterns of warmer, wetter winters and cooler, dryer summers.

Most modern Pueblo peoples (whether Keresans, Hopi, or Tanoans) and historians like James W. Loewen, in his book Lies Across America, assert these people did not "vanish," as is commonly portrayed, but merged into the various pueblo peoples whose descendants still live in Arizona and New Mexico.

Many modern Pueblo tribes trace their lineage from settlements in the Anasazi area and areas inhabited by their cultural neighbors, the Mogollon. For example, the San Ildefonso Pueblo people believe that their ancestors lived in both the Mesa Verde area and the current Bandelier.

The term "Anasazi" was established in archaeological terminology through the Pecos Classification system in 1927. Archaeologist Linda Cordell discussed the word's etymology and use:

    "The name "Anasazi" has come to mean "ancient people," "ancient ones", although the word itself is Navajo, meaning "enemy ancestors." It is unfortunate that a non-Pueblo word has come to stand for a tradition that is certainly ancestral Pueblo.

The term was first applied to ruins of the Mesa Verde by Richard Wetherill, a rancher and trader who, in 1888-1889, was the first Anglo-American to explore the sites in that area. Wetherill knew and worked with Navajos and understood what the word meant.

Some modern Pueblo peoples object to the use of the term Anasazi, although there is still controversy among them on a native alternative. The modern Hopi use the word "Hisatsinom" in preference to Anasazi. However, Navajo Nation Historic Preservation Department (NNHPD) spokeman Ronald Maldonado has indicated the Navajo do not favor use of the term "Ancestral Puebloan." In fact, reports submitted for review by NNHPD are rejected if they include use of the term.

Archeologists are not sure why these ancient people deserted the cliff dwellings by the end of the thirteenth century. Some experts think that they ran from attacks from marauding groups of native peoples. Others believe that overuse of the land for agriculture, combined with a long drought, drove the people away.

The ancient Pueblo people constructed sandals from yucca, hemp weed, hair and other fibers by weaving them on large, upright loom frames. Soles for sandals and moccasins were made of rawhide. Moccasins were constructed of deerskin and sewn with sinew. Matted fibers from juniper bark, which has soft fibers that separate and can be peeled from the bark, were used to insulate sandals and moccasins in cold weather. Fresh goatskins with the hairy side turned inward were worn to encase the feet in snowy weather. Brand new moccasins, sandals or thongs were placed on the dead before burial.

Pueblo women wore a garment made of hundreds of yucca fiber strands covering the buttocks, similar to a beech cloth flap. The men didn't wear much clothing in warm weather except for a belt of woven hair and grasses, necessary to hang tools and items they may need for hands-free hunting and weaving. When sheep were introduced into the villages of the Pueblo people, they began weaving wool for clothing, and years later, cotton for clothing, which was much cooler in warm weather.

Pueblo people enjoyed decorative jewelry. They constructed them out of stone beads, seeds, feathers, coral, bones, shells, abalone and stones. Items were polished, punched, carved and engraved to create jewelry of almost every kind, such as bracelets, arm bands, earrings, necklaces, pins and ankle bracelets for both men and women. Jewelry was often placed in graves with the dead, along with pottery created especially for the burial ceremony. After the Pueblos learned silversmithing from the Spaniards in the 1800s, metal jewelry was integrated into the jewelry materials they were previously using.

The Ancestral Puebloans are also known for their unique style of pottery, today considered valuable for their rarity. They also created many petroglyphs and pictographs.

Archaeological cultural units such as "Anasazi", Hohokam, Patayan or Mogollon are used by archaeologists to define material culture similarities and differences that may identify prehistoric socio-cultural units which may be understood as equivalent to modern tribes, societies or peoples. The names and divisions are classificatory devices based on theoretical perspectives, analytical methods and data available at the time of analysis and publication. They are subject to change, not only on the basis of new information and discoveries, but also as attitudes and perspectives change within the scientific community. It should not be assumed that an archaeological division or culture unit corresponds to a particular language group or to a socio-political entity such as a tribe.

When making use of modern cultural divisions in the American Southwest, it is important to understand three limitations in the current conventions:

    Archaeological research focuses on items left behind during people's activities fragments of pottery vessels, human remains, stone tools or evidence left from the construction of dwellings. However, many other aspects of the culture of prehistoric peoples are not tangible. Languages spoken by these people and their beliefs and behavior are difficult to decipher from physical materials. Cultural divisions are tools of the modern scientist, and so should not be considered similar to divisions or relationships the ancient residents may have recognized. Modern cultures in this region, many of whom claim some of these ancient people as ancestors, contain a striking range of diversity in lifestyles, social organization, language and religious beliefs. This suggests the ancient people were also more diverse than their material remains may suggest.

Secret ruins unveiled in Utah canyon

Arizona Republic - June 2004

Range Creek area southeast of East Carbon City, Utah Archaeologists led reporters into a remote canyon to reveal an almost perfectly preserved picture of ancient life: stone pit houses, granaries and a bounty of artifacts kept secret for more than a half-century. Hundreds of sites on a private ranch turned over to the state offer some of the best evidence of the little-understood Fremont culture, hunter-gatherers and farmers who lived mostly within the present-day borders of Utah. The sites at Range Creek may be up to 4,500 years old.

A caravan of news organizations traveled for two hours from the mining town of East Carbon City, over a serpentine thriller of a dirt road that topped an 8,200-foot mountain before dropping into the narrow canyon in Utah's Book Cliffs region. Officials kept known burial sites and human remains out of view of reporters and cameras, but within a single square mile of verdant meadows, archaeologists showed off one village site and said there were five more, where arrowheads, pottery shards and other artifacts can still be found lying on the ground. Archaeologists said the occupation sites, which include granaries full of grass seed and corn, offer an unspoiled slice of life of the ancestors of modern American Indian tribes. The settlements are scattered along 12 miles of Range Creek and up side canyons.

The collapsing half-buried houses don't have the grandeur of New Mexico's Chaco Canyon or Colorado's Mesa Verde, where overhanging cliffs shelter stacked stone houses. But they are remarkable in that they hold a treasure of information about the Fremont culture that has been untouched by looters. The Fremont people were efficient hunters, taking down deer, elk, bison and small game and leaving behind piles of animal bone waste, Jones said. They fished for trout in Range Creek, using a hook and line or weirs. In their more advanced stage they grew corn.

Waldo Wilcox, the rancher who sold the land and returned Wednesday, kept the archaeological sites a closely guarded secret for more than 50 years. The San Francisco-based Trust for Public Land bought Wilcox's 4,200-acre ranch for $2.5 million. The conservation group transferred the ranch to the Bureau of Land Management, which turned it over to Utah. The deal calls for the ranch to be opened for public access, a subject certain to raise debate over the proper stewardship of a significant archaeological find.


Artifacts found in the Wilcox collection include a wide array of bone needles, stone awls, bone and shell beads, projectile points, knives, scrapers and other stone tools from an interesting variety of cherts -- obsidian, pink agate and what resembled Llano Estacado alibate.



Reconstructed Pithouse - State Park, Boulder, Utah

The Fremont culture or Fremont people, named by Noel Morss of Harvard's Peabody Museum after the Fremont River in Utah, is an archaeological culture that inhabited what is now Utah and parts of eastern Nevada, southern Idaho, southern Wyoming, and eastern Colorado between about 400 and 1300 AD.

The Fremont culture unit was characterised by small, scattered communities that subsisted primarily through maize cultivation. Archaeologists have long debated whether the Fremont were a local Archaic population that adopted village-dwelling life from the neighboring Anasazi culture to the south, or whether they represent an actual migration of Basketmakers (the earliest culture stage in the Anasazi Culture) into the northern American Southwest or the area that Julian Steward once called the "Northern Periphery".

The Fremont have some unique material culture traits that mark them as a distinct and identifiable archaeological culture unit, and recent mtDNA data indicate they are a biologically distinct population, separate from the Basketmaker. What early archaeologists such as Morss or Marie Wormington used to define the Fremont was their distinctive pottery, particularly vessel forms, incised and applique decorations, and unique leather moccasins. However, their house forms and overall technology are virtually indistinguishable from the Anasazi. Their habitations were initially circular pit-houses but they began to adopt rectangular stone-built pueblo homes above ground.

Marwitt (1970) defined local or geographic variations within the Fremont culture area based largely on differences in ceramic production and geography. Marwitt's subdivisions are the Parowan Fremont in southwestern Utah, the Sevier Fremont in west central Utah and eastern Nevada, the Great Salt Lake Fremont stretching between the Great Salt Lake and the Snake River in southern Idaho, Uinta Fremont in northeastern Utah, and arguably the San Rafael Fremont in eastern Utah and western Colorado. (The latter geographic variant may well be indivisible from the San Juan Anasazi.)

Ancient Timbers Reveal Secrets of Anasazi Builders


National Geographic - September 28, 2001

Some of America's earliest high-rise architects lived in Chaco Canyon, New Mexico, between the tenth and twelfth centuries. Here these Anasazi designers and engineers built 12 great houses up to five stories high with hundreds of rooms. However, where the Chaco residents harvested the lumber for these enormous buildings is a question that has stumped archaeologists. Now scientists have found a way to let ancient timbers tell their secrets. Geochemist Nathan English, of the University of Arizona, has developed a chemical test to determine the origin of these trees.

In the same way that human bones absorb and store calcium from food, trees take up the element strontium. Exactly how much is absorbed depends on the quantity in the surrounding soil and rock where the tree grows. The test is based on comparing ratios of two strontium isotopes from wooden construction beams in the Chaco houses with measurements taken from modern trees in the surrounding mountain ranges.


Cliff Palace

Ancient Native Americans enjoyed apartment-style living.

Anthropology, Arts and Music, Geography, Human Geography, Social Studies, U.S. History

Cliff Palace was part of the thriving village of Mesa Verde, home to several thousand people. What other lifestyles could the Ancestral Puebloans have chosen? Why do you think they chose to live in a large settlement?

Answers will vary! Ancestral Puebloans could have pursued a nomadic lifestyle. Families could have established isolated plots of land, and extended families could have formed loosely connected networks.

The village of Mesa Verde offered Ancestral Puebloans more opportunities. They could store food and other goods, making the economy more stable during times of drought or conflict, for example.

Mesa Verde also offered Ancestral Puebloans a greater range of services, such as aid for the injured or help with child-care.

Ancestral Puebloans at Mesa Verde could also specialize their work. Some people could construct buildings (such as Cliff Palace) while others harvested crops, for instance. Not everyone had to do everything themselves.

Finally, the village of Mesa Verde created a strong sense of community among Ancestral Puebloans. The settlement's shared culture allowed residents to negotiate with neighboring communities or tribes in times of both peace and conflict.

Cliff Palace was just one part of Mesa Verde. What other types of dwellings do you think Ancestral Puebloans used?

Besides cliff dwellings, residents of Mesa Verde lived in stone houses built on top of cliffs and on the valley floor. They also lived in so-called "pit houses," dwellings dug into the ground and covered with wood, thatch, or mud roofs.

The apartments at Cliff Palace had storage space, living quarters, and even a place for entertainment (kivas). What features of modern apartments are missing from Cliff Palace?

Answers will vary! The apartments at Cliff Palace did not have specialized rooms for cooking (kitchens). They also did not have private bathrooms. (Eating and hygiene were more communal activities for Ancestral Puebloans than modern Western cultures.)

Today, 24 tribes trace their heritage to the Ancestral Puebloans who constructed Cliff Palace and the rest of Mesa Verde. They span the entire Four Corners region:

  • Navajo Nation (Utah, Colorado, Arizona, New Mexico)
  • Southern Ute (Colorado)
  • Ute Mountain Ute Tribe (Colorado)
  • Ysleta del Sur Pueblo (Texas)
  • Hopi (Arizona)
  • The 19 Pueblos of New Mexico: (Taos, Picuris, Sandia, Isleta, Ohkay Owingeh, Santa Clara, San Ildelfonso, Nambe, Tesuque, Jemez, Cochiti, Pojoaque, Santo Domingo, San Felipe, Santa Ana, Zia, Laguna, Acoma, Zuni)

(1200 BCE-1300 CE) people and culture native to what is now the southwestern United States. Also called Ancestral Puebloans.

(1200 BCE-1300 CE) people and culture native to what is now the southwestern United States. Also called Anasazi.

person who studies cultures and characteristics of communities and civilizations.


Architecture

The beginning of the Anasazi era is defined largely by changes in lifestyle as the hunter-gatherers became more serious about agriculture and they began to stay in one place for a number of years. Part of settling down involved building more permanent living quarters.

Over a shallow pit in the earth the Ancient Ones built semi-permanent houses of poles and brush plastered with mud. These pithouses were essentially the same as those first built in northeastern Europe 25,000 years ago. Pithouse technology was probably transmitted east through Siberia, across the ice bridge between Asia and North America about 12,000 to 14,000 years ago, down through Alaska and Canada to the American Southwest.

An individual pithouse was occupied for an average of about 15 years. By modern standards (in the developed world), these early habitations of the Anasazi were cramped, smelly, crude, dark, smoky, and cold most of the time during the winter, but probably far superior to the caves and temporary shelters the nomads were used to. In places where soil and water were present in quality and quantity suitable for growing food, a number of Anasazi families would build pithouses and create a small community.

From about A.D. 500, as pithouse design and construction evolved, the shallow pits grew deeper — more like three to five feet deep. Often, the sides of the pit were plastered with clay or lined with stone — either large slabs wedged upright in the soil or courses of smaller stones laid around the inside perimeter. Generally, pithouses were round, and between nine and twenty-five feet in diameter. Later, around A.D. 700, many new pithouses were square, rectangular or shaped like the letter D.

Usually, four posts were positioned upright in the pit, joined at the top by four horizontal beams and crossed with ceiling joists. The outer skin of the pithouse was made of branches, brush and grass or a matting of tree bark. Construction was completed with a layer of mud on the outside of the roof and walls for protection from the weather. Inside was a central fireplace, used for heating and cooking. Side vents and a hole in the roof provided fresh air and evacuated smoke.

Today, there are almost no remaining pithouses in the open. The elements have obliterated them. Many of the existing examples have been discovered through excavation. There are pithouse reproductions at places like Mesa Verde and in the Museum at the Manitou Cliff Dwellings.


Out of the pit

Most early Anasazi were cave dwellers. The advent of the pithouse brought them out into the open, though they still lived largely in the earth. As early as A.D. 350, but aggressively from around 700-750, the Anasazi began to build above-ground structures of mud (jacal or adobe) and stone. They gradually raised the floor to ground level. The transition wasn’t immediate, however. Many masonry structures still had sunken floors.

In time they made an even greater transition, to the mesa tops. Some of the most haunting and thought-provoking ruins lie above the canyons on gently sloping islands of land dotted with cedar and piñon.

In some regions, like Kayenta, they never gave up the pithouse altogether. In most, however, above-ground masonry buildings ultimately became the standard that lasted to the end of the 13th century.

More about above-ground structures

Anasazi building styles varied with time, the availability of materials, the urgency of the construction project and the skill of the builder. As the Ancient Ones began to build from the ground up, they may have started with jacal before they moved into pure masonry building techniques. In what looks like a natural evolution from pithouse construction, loosely spaced wooden stakes or poles were plastered with mud to make walls. As jacal construction evolved, stone slabs were placed around the base, and courses of stone were laid up around the outside. The next logical step was to build exclusively with stone.


An Example of jacal construction

Masonry walls often consisted of a core of rough, irregular loose stones finished on two sides with a veneer of shaped stones. Sometimes the mason would fashion a wall from a single or double course of larger, more regular blocks of sandstone or limestone. Anasazi masonry became quite elegant and refined over time. Both the stone and jacal structures were fitted with a roof similar to that of the pithouse — sturdy poles overlain with a lattice of slender poles, branches and brush. A layer of mud finished the job.


Masonry wall with a veneer of shaped stones

Doorways were narrow and short, like the people.
Sometimes they were T-shaped. Some archaeologists suggest that the top portion was wider so that shoulder-borne burdens could be brought in more easily and that a blanket could be draped on the shoulders of the narrower bottom to keep out some of the cold air in the winter. Others suggest the T-shape was for defensive purposes. Some modern-day Hopi elders say that the shape of the doorway is symbolic of the Hopi worldview, like their traditional hair style.


T-Shaped Doorway and T-Shaped Doorway with blanket on right

Surprisingly, even the best masonry work was often hidden — coated inside and out with a smooth layer of mud. Today, it is still possible to see walls plastered more than seven centuries ago, many with the original whitewash, hand painted designs and the designer’s handprints.

In general, Chaco has the finest examples of Anasazi masonry. Mesa Verde’s cliff dwellings are best known. Although it has wonderful architectural specimens, the masonry of the Kayenta area is the least carefully executed.

Mesa Verde

Parallel evolution
Architecture evolved with cultural advances, especially the gradual expansion of Anasazi communities from a few scattered dwellings to a hamlet to a village to a town. In time, architecture must have become a highly respected profession as Anasazi engineers and stone masons built increasingly elaborate buildings.

Almost all Anasazi buildings faced south in order to capitalize on the warmth of the winter sun. To individual walled rooms, others were added to create rectangular blocks of rooms that housed many families. Most had at least one super-pithouse, a kiva. Often at the center of the community, the underground kiva is thought to have been used for ceremonial, religious or community purposes.

More about kivas

Usually a pueblo had at least one special subterranean community pithouse — a kiva, sometimes up to 60 feet in diameter. Most were entered through a hole in the roof. A stone bench for sitting lined the perimeter. There was a hole in the floor — now called a sipapu — symbolizing the people’s connection from birth with Mother Earth. Near the center was a fireplace. Ventilator shafts on the sides made the kiva more livable.


Cut away view of a Kiva

The first kivas appeared at the beginning of the Pueblo I period, about A.D. 750. While most ancient kivas are round, some are D-shaped or square. From the 10th Century on, many kivas included a small room opening out from the perimeter on the south or southeast, creating a sort of keyhole design. The side room is believed to have been used for the storage of ceremonial items.


Floor plan of a Kiva

Today, the Hopi and other descendants still use kivas (square and above ground in the case of the Hopi) for ceremonial, religious and celebratory purposes. Most archaeologists believe that the ancient kivas were also used for such purposes. They say that women and children were never allowed into the sacred depths. Men would enter through the hole in the roof, climb down the ladder and find a place on the bench. When they had all gathered, they would smoke, weave or dialogue about important matters facing the village. Sometimes they would dance to invoke the spirits, bless the crops or give thanks. Recently, however, it has been argued that we are only conjecturing when we conclude that kivas were primarily religious facilities. The dissenters think that these structures may have been used for domestic or community gatherings, like a town hall. The debate is not over.

You can see a kiva at the Manitou Cliff Dwellings. Reconstructed kivas can also be visited (and entered in some cases) at Aztec Ruins National Monument, Bandelier National Monument and Kuaua Pueblo at the Coronado State Monument, all in New Mexico, and at Mesa Verde National Monument, Colorado.

Kiva at the Manitou Cliff Dwellings


Kiva at the Manitou Cliff Dwellings

Today, we use the term pueblo to describe the larger Anasazi buildings, groups of buildings, and communities. Many Anasazi communities were vacated and lay empty only to be reoccupied years later, often by people from different clans and, sometimes, different cultures than those of the original builders.

Some Anasazi towns were quite large. Yellow Jacket, near Cortez, Colorado, is the largest prehistoric town we know of in the Four Corners Area. More than 1,800 rooms are believed to have housed about 3,000 people.

Ancient high rises

Some of the individual structures were as big as present day apartment buildings. Many had several levels, up to five stories. One partially restored building at Aztec Ruins National Monument in New Mexico had at least 220 ground-floor rooms, 119 second-story rooms and more than 12 third-story rooms. The Great House may have had as many as 450 rooms aggregating 161,000 square feet. In addition, there were 29 kivas and one Great Kiva. Fifty feet in diameter, the Great Kiva had four massive columns set on 375-pound hand-carved limestone bases supporting a 95-ton roof. Pueblo Bonito, at Chaco, occupied more than three acres and rose five stories. With more than 800 rooms it was home to about 1,000 people. Until 1882 it was the largest apartment house in the world!

Cliff dwellings

Cliff dwellings — stone houses, villages and towns built in caves or on large shelves in sheer rock canyon walls — are generally considered most representative of Anasazi architecture. In fact, before much was known about the inhabitants of places like Mesa Verde, the ancient builders were called simply Cliff Dwellers. Though these dwellings may be the most spectacular of the Anasazi architecture, they constitute less than ten percent of all Anasazi habitations built from about 1200 B.C. to the end of the Anasazi era, about A.D. 1300. When you consider the enormous amount of work that went into constructing a cliff dwelling, it seems surprising that they were rarely occupied continuously for more than 80 years.

Most cliff dwellings were built on south-facing ledges in deep sandstone canyons. Thanks to the southern exposure, the low-riding sun provided heat in the winter. The overhanging lip of the cliff offered cool shade from the high summer sun. Agricultural fields were maintained on the mesas above and, sometimes, in broader canyons below the dwellings. Access to most cliff dwellings consisted of a series of small hand- and toeholds in the steep sandstone walls. Sometimes there was a slender bridge of rock to cross. There were no handrails. Today, few of us besides seasoned climbers and committed archaeologists would dare to scale a sheer rock wall without ladder or rope to enter a cliff dwelling 75 feet above the canyon floor.

The Anasazi built cliff dwellings before the 13th century. One of the oldest of the important cliff dwellings, Keet Seel, was originally inhabited around 950. Redesigned in 1272 to include 160 rooms, it is the second largest cliff dwelling. The largest is Mesa Verde’s Cliff Palace.

During the 13th century, for reasons that are still debated, the Ancient Ones focused almost exclusively on cliff dwellings. In a single 100-year period, they built and occupied most of the existing cliff-side structures that have captivated modern viewers. Some archeologists suggest that, by living in the canyons rather than on the mesas, the Anasazi made more land available for cultivation in a century that saw two major droughts. Others believe that cliff dwellings were built as protection against some unidentified enemy.

Cliff dwellings are not the only Anasazi architectural structures that invite our curiosity, awe and interest. Especially in the Mesa Verde and Northern San Juan Basin areas, the Old Ones built round, square and D-shaped towers several stories tall, apparently intended for non-residential use. One of the possible uses of these towers was for communications. Messages could be transmitted by a communications technician using a mica “mirror” to reflect the sun and signal from the top of a tower to a technician on a tower in a nearby village. Some modern scientists and native elders suggest that towers were also used for astronomical observations. Following the appearance of Haley’s Comet in 1066 and solar eclipses in 1076 and 1097, five astronomical observatories were built at Chaco. Many others were built elsewhere in the Four Corners Area.
Tower at the Manitou Cliff Dwellings

It seems ironic that the ancestors of modern Puebloans may have reached their cultural peak in the 13th century only to “disappear.” Most of the cliff dwellings were built and vacated in less than 100 years. Though that time period represented several generations for the Anasazi, 100 years is a very short lifetime for a village, especially an elaborately constructed stone village in the side of a cliff.

By 1300 Keet Seel, Mesa Verde and all the other cliff dwellings were abandoned. Early archaeologists found evidence that cliff dwellers may have left hastily. Pottery, tools, baskets, woven fabrics, grain and ears of corn were often left behind, as if the inhabitants were out on an errand and intended to return shortly. The rotted and collapsed roofs and cold fire hearths, however, gave mute testimony to the centuries that had passed since the dwellers had departed.


Why did Ancient Pueblo peoples build their homes in cliffs? - Historia


Archaeology at Woods Canyon Pueblo
Fourth Grade Lesson Plan

Concepts
Archaeological research and theories, settlement patterns, place or location

Skills
Reading comprehension, analysis and evaluation

Time Required
3 to 4 hours may be adapted to several shorter periods

Materials
1. Woods Canyon Pueblo: Life on the Edge (see Steps 3 and 6 under "Procedure").

3. The diagram showing the major landforms mentioned in this lesson: mesa top, canyon edge, canyon slope, canyon bottom, alcove, and spring.

Vocabulary
Pueblo Indian, pueblo, adobe, canyon, alcove, mesa, roomblock, kiva, plaza, tower, natural resources

Fondo
This lesson highlights two important facets of archaeology: asking research questions and testing theories. It also introduces students to the concept of settlement patterns, which is one of the most important topics in the archaeology of the American Southwest.

To guide their investigations, archaeologists ask questions, then propose theories that can be tested using evidence gathered through excavation and laboratory analysis. En Woods Canyon Pueblo: Life on the Edge and in this lesson, students are asked to consider one of the research questions that guided Crow Canyon's excavations at this large village: Why did the ancient Pueblo people choose to live on the edge of Woods Canyon? Students are then challenged to think like archaeologists as they read about five theories, evaluating the relative merit of each before finally choosing the theory that they feel best answers the research question.

Nota: En Woods Canyon Pueblo: Life on the Edge, archaeologists, Native Americans, and a former Crow Canyon student archaeologist provide valuable information to students. The inclusion of Native American perspectives in archaeological research is a growing and important trend. You are encouraged to have your students complete the lesson Woods Canyon Pueblo: Life on the Edge, Native American Perspectives, which asks students to better understand Native American perspectives and culture. It, too, is located on Crow Canyon's Web site.

The research question presented in this lesson addresses a topic that is of great interest to archaeologists working in the Southwest today: the settlement patterns of the ancient Pueblo people. Settlement patterns—that is, where people lived on the landscape—have long been a research focus, because they are known to have changed over time, probably in response to a number of different factors.

The ancient Pueblo people lived in the Four Corners region of the Colorado Plateau from about 1000 B.C. to A.D. 1300. They built villages of stone, wood, and adobe. Some villages consisted of only a few families, but others were home to hundreds of people. Early in their history (1000 B.C. to A.D. 750, also known as the Basketmaker period), the Pueblo people built their homes in many different locations, including canyon bottoms, alcoves, and mesa tops. During the Pueblo I and II periods (A.D. 750 to 1150), they built their homes and villages almost entirely on mesa tops, where there was abundant farmland.

The building of a village on the edge of Woods Canyon typifies a settlement pattern prevalent throughout the Four Corners region in the late A.D. 1100s and 1200s (the Pueblo III period). During this time, the ancient Pueblo people tended to build new homes and villages on canyon edges and in alcoves located on the steep canyon slopes. Although the Pueblo people moved to these new villages in the late 1100s and 1200s, archaeologists believe that they continued to grow their crops on the mesa tops. Woods Canyon Pueblo is just one example of the relocation from mesa-top villages to canyon-edge and alcove sites. The famous cliff dwellings of Mesa Verde National Park are also examples of this dramatic change in the settlement pattern during the Pueblo III period.

The ancient Pueblo people's decision to build their village on the edge of Woods Canyon should be framed in this broader chronological context and pattern of regional settlement. You might consider drawing a picture of a mesa with a canyon edge and alcove to highlight changes in the settlement pattern (see the major landforms diagram).

At a minimum, you should share with the students the following information, which is also available on the introductory page of Woods Canyon Pueblo: Life on the Edge (the "Who, What, Where, and When" section). Woods Canyon Pueblo is located in the high desert country of the Four Corners region of the American Southwest. It sits on the cliff edge and steep slope of a large canyon called Woods Canyon. Archaeologists believe the pueblo had more than 200 buildings, which was a fairly large village in those days. It might have been home to as many as 50 to 200 people. Pueblo people lived at Woods Canyon Pueblo for at least 100 years. They built the first structures about 850 years ago (A.D. 1150) near the bottom of the canyon. Approximately 750 years ago (A.D. 1250), the villagers began adding new buildings up the steep side of the canyon and on the canyon's cliff edge.

Procedure
1. Choose one of the following two lesson formats:

  • Student Internet access: Students read Woods Canyon Pueblo: Life on the Edge online they fill out the Archaeology at Woods Canyon Pueblo Fourth Grade Study Guide on paper.
  • No student Internet access: Students read paper copies of Woods Canyon Pueblo: Life on the Edge they fill out the Archaeology at Woods Canyon Pueblo Fourth Grade Study Guide on paper.

2. Print enough copies of the Archaeology at Woods Canyon Pueblo Fourth Grade Study Guide so that each student can have his or her own copy.

3. If students will no be working online, they will need access to paper copies of Woods Canyon Pueblo: Life on the Edge, which can be printed in sections and then placed in centers around the classroom. The sections to be placed at the centers are the "Who, What, Where, and When" section and the individual theory sections (Beauty, Natural Resources, Water, Defense, and Farming). Print several copies of each section, and place them at the various centers. Students will rotate through the centers to complete Parts One and Two of the study guide. This conserves paper and still allows students to work at their own pace.

4. Frame the activity by providing the students with the information presented in the "Background" section of this lesson plan, including information about settlement patterns and archaeological research questions and theories.

5. Distribute copies of the Archaeology at Woods Canyon Pueblo Fourth Grade Study Guide.

6. Read the directions for Parts One and Two with the students. Give the students time to complete these parts.

  • Students with Internet access will use the online copy of Woods Canyon Pueblo: Life on the Edge when answering questions (available at www.crowcanyon.org/woodslifeontheedge).
  • Students who do not have Internet access will use paper copies of the "Who, What, Where, and When" section and the individual theory sections (Beauty, Natural Resources, Water, Defense, and Farming) placed at the centers throughout the classroom.

7. Read the directions for Part Three with the students, and have them work individually to complete the ranking and answer the questions.

8. As a class, compile totals for each of the theories. As the totals are being compiled, have the students share the rationale behind their decisions with the entire class.

9. Complete the closure activity, below.

Closure
Reveal the answer to the students: No one knows for sure why the ancient Pueblo people built their village on the edge of Woods Canyon. Refer to the final section of Woods Canyon Pueblo: Life on the Edge by selecting the "I'm ready to select a theory" button at the bottom of any of the theory pages. The truth is that there was probably not just one reason that the ancient Pueblo people chose to build at Woods Canyon. Discuss with the students why it was difficult to choose just one theory and why it is difficult for archaeologists to answer this research question. Perhaps ask them if they have any other ideas about why the ancient Pueblo people chose to build on the canyon edge, or ask them if they have any ideas about how to better research this question.

Evaluation
Successful completion of the Archaeology at Woods Canyon Pueblo Fourth Grade Study Guide and class discussion.

Extension
Have the students apply a similar research question to their hometown or any city in the world. For example, Why did people choose to build their hometown? Or, Why did people decide to build Washington, D.C., on the Potomac River? Students can research and categorize the reasons for building a city and then compare those reasons to the theories presented in Woods Canyon Pueblo: Life on the Edge.

Lesson plan developed and written by Joshua S. Munson, Crow Canyon Archaeological Center

Visit the Learning Center at www.crowcanyon.org

Crow Canyon Archaeological Center, 23390 Road K, Cortez, CO 81321. 970-565-8975 or 800-422-8975
© Copyright 2004 by Crow Canyon Archaeological Center
Reservados todos los derechos.


Adobe House

Pueblos / Adobe House Definition and History: Stone Pueblos
The original construction material to build these homes was stone and as the style and design of house was used by the Pueblo group of Native Indians their homes were commonly referred to as 'Pueblos''. The term 'Puebloans, derives from a Spanish word meaning "village dwellers". The Spanish introduced glass and the adobe brick and their houses became known as 'Adobes'. Adobe houses have very thick walls and are generally very cool in the summer and warm in the winter.

The Stone Pueblos
The ancestral Puebloans, called the Anasazi, first lived in Cliff Houses to protect their people from attacks by hostile tribes. The Anasazi cliff dwellers were sedentary farmers who planted crops in the river valleys below their high perched houses. The people were excellent stone masons and soon moved from their cliff dwellings and began to build their houses beneath the overhanging cliffs, near to their farms. Their basic construction material used to build the 'Pueblos' was sandstone that they shaped into small rectangular blocks. The sandstone blocks were fixed with mortar made from a mixture of mud and water. The rooms in the Pueblos measured 8 - 10 feet and the constructions were terraced and multi-storey. Living rooms were at the front of the Pueblos and the rooms at the back and on the upper levels were generally used for storing crops. Underground chambers used for ceremonial and religious purposes, called kivas, were features of all the villages. The stone Pueblos had only small windows which had a sheet of mica instead of glass. Mica was a thin transparent kind of stone, which would let light in, but not the cold or heat. Mica was used by many ancient civilizations including the Mayans and the Aztecs.

The Adobe House: Adobe Bricks
The Spanish arrived in the 16th century and introduced the ancient Adobe brick building technique that was common in Europe and the Middle East. "Adobe" is the Spanish word meaning "to plaster", derived from the Arabic word "al-tob", dating from the Moorish occupation of Spain. Adobe is the name given to bricks made from a mixture of mud, sand, straw, and sometimes ash. The mixture was poured into 10 x 14 inch moulds to form hard Adobe bricks. The Adobe bricks were dried in the hot sun (not kiln-fired) to make a very strong building material for the Adobe house construction.


Historia

The 40 room site was originally located in McElmo Canyon, which is in the southwest corner of Colorado near Mesa Verde and Dolores. The process of relocating these cliff dwellings began in 1904 and was completed in 1907 when the preserve was opened to the public. Virginia McClurg, the original founder of the Colorado Cliff Dwellers Association, hired William Crosby and the Manitou Cliff Dwellings Ruins Company to begin this process. They wanted to preserve and protect these dwellings from looters and relic pot-hunters.

Their company spent many months mapping out the dwellings in McElmo Canyon. Prior to the 1906 Antiquities Act, the Federal Government did not get involved in protecting these historic sites. Virginia McClurg wanted to change this. She and Crosby’s company therefore began a preservation project and acquired the rights to move a portion of the dwellings from McElmo Canyon to Phantom Canyon, later to be renamed Cliff Canyon, here in Manitou Springs.

Over a several year period, the ruins from McElmo Canyon were collected, packaged, and finally moved by oxen out of McElmo Canyon to Dolores, Colorado. There, they were loaded and shipped by railroad to Colorado Springs, and finally brought to Cliff Canyon by horse and wagon. Crosby’s men then faithfully reassembled the dwellings in dimension and appearance to those in the four corners region, instead they used a concrete mortar in 1907 as opposed to the adobe mud/clay mortar the Anasazi used. This allows individuals to walk inside and tour through our dwellings. The Manitou Cliff Dwellings is a preserve of these ancient dwellings, here to protect them for future generations to visit.

The creation of the Manitou Cliff Dwellings Museum and Preserve was the vision of Virginia McClurg and Harold Ashenhurst. It was undertaken to create a museum that preserves and protects the fine stonework architecture of the Southwestern Indians, which at that time, were unprotected from vandals and artifact hunters. The impact of these careless people threatened to wipe out the great architectural achievements of the Anasazi Indians. In 1907, our preserve was acknowledged by Dr. E. L. Hewett, Director of American Archaeology and father of the Antiquities Act, for its detail of workmanship and educational purpose.

Our three story pueblo structure demonstrates the architecture of the Taos Pueblo Indians of New Mexico. These Pueblo Indians are descendants of the Cliff Dwelling Indians belonging to the Anasazi cultural line. This pueblo building was erected at the turn of the century and home to a Native American family of dancers who entertained the tourists for several generations. This Native American family lived in the pueblo as late as 1984. Over the years, the pueblo was expanded into museums of pottery and artifacts. It has since been expanded to include our souvenir shop that offers Native Made pottery, jewelry, and artifacts, as well as Colorado and US made gifts. We welcome you to explore the Anasazi culture and get a “hands on” educational experience, while you are visiting the Pikes Peak region.


About the Official City Seal

The flags in the city's official seal, which fly above the banner "under 5 flags," represent the 5 countries and territories that held dominion over the Pueblo area during the last 2 centuries. Those countries are France, Mexico, Texas, Spain, and of course, the United States of America.

Included in the seal is a representation of old Fort Pueblo, the 1st permanent structure in the area. Pueblo was incorporated in 1870, at the confluence of the Arkansas River and Fountain River. The waters of these 2 rivers are represented by the wa ves beneath the fort.

List of site sources >>>


Ver el vídeo: Increíble casa de principios del siglo XX 1912 (Enero 2022).